Wednesday, February 28, 2018

Two Interviews with Breeder and Vet Dr. Jan Greve

I'd like to alert breeders to a couple of articles in The Horse Magazine, at These are two interviews with Dr. Jan Greve, one of Holland's most famous jumper breeders and the owner of Voltaire, as well as a high-profile veterinarian. The first one is a recent article; the other one quite a bit older, but very interesting.

The first article is "an explosive interview..." with Dr. Greve, as he stepped down (he turned 70 in January 2018) as team veterinarian for the KNHS (the Dutch equestrian federation), and talks about why. Also in the article:

  • The growing difference between showjumping and dressage horses.
  • "There’s no joy [in dressage] anymore, it’s all discipline and more discipline. ... For too many riders, the horse has become a machine. It is no longer a companion, and that’s how they train them."
  • "Too many horses are not having enough fun."
  • “Half of our work as veterinarians is finding veterinary excuses for hippological ignorance.”

Click here to read the article.

In an older article, some of the topics discussed are:

  • Why European breeders don't do much embryo transfer.
  • Why you shouldn't use your successful competition mare as a broodmare.
  • At what age your mares will produce the best foals.
  • “The problem with the modern breeding world is that there is too much fashion."
  • and more

Click here to read the article.

As always, thank you to Christopher Hector, interviewer and publisher of The Horse Magazine, which is based in Australia.

New German X-ray Guidelines for Pre-Purchase Exams

We are proud to offer this article, recently published by the German St. Georg magazine. It concerns changes to the guidelines for x-rays used in Germany as part of the pre-purchase process. This is often an important step for breeders, and many of the same issues apply in North America that are discussed in this article. 

Our thanks to Edda Selinger, of JES Breeding Farm in Alberta, Canada, and owner of Holsteiner stallion Carthago Sun I, who translated the article from the German and also spoke with St. Georg and obtained permission for to print it. 

First published in Germany's oldest equestrian publication, St.GEORG.
Article copyright © 2018 St. Georg magazine, translation copyright © 2018 Edda Selinger.

Article by Jan Toenjes in the German Equestrian Sports Magazine St. Georg, dated January 1, 2018. Visit

St. GEORG Photo

The German Veterinary Association drastically changed the parameters with regard to the interpretation of X-rays used in the pre-purchaseexamination of horses. The X-ray guide for 2018 did away with the grading of X-rays. And X-raying the horse’s back has been eliminated. 

The clinical examination is the most important part of any pre- purchase examination: The veterinarian checks the general condition of the horse, including heartbeat, breathing, eyes and teeth etc. He/she touches the legs from top to bottom – wants to sense the condition of the horse. What the experienced hand feels and the keen eye alerts is more relevant than whatever is later displayed on the radiograph. This holds especially true for the clinical examination of the horse’s movement: Walk and trot on solid ground, straight and turning, lunging. Flexion tests, executed by an experienced equine veterinarian, offer additional information. 

The clinical test is concluded with o.b.B. (ohne besonderen Befund = no special findings).

Anticipated with uneasiness: The X-rays 

As part of the pre-purchase examination, X-rays are an additional tool, to pinpoint possible risks in the bone structure. This is the moment when both parties, buyer and seller, become anxious. Would the X- rays disclose something that would jeopardize the sale? A shadow on the X-ray! Hints of changes in a joint? A zyst? End of a dream! The buyer is disappointed, not only for the financial loss, but also the emotional investment coming to nothing. 

And the seller is asking himself, if his horse that had just shown a dynamic trot, suddenly became a sport invalid.

X-ray Guidelines 2018 

Professor Dr. Christoph Lischer is a friendly man with an engaging smile. But two words will exasperate him: “X-ray Grades” and “TÜV”, short for “Technischer Überwachungs-Verein” which inspects and certifies cars and other machinery to be in good working order. In his opinion many horses were absolutely unjustly labeled with “health risks” in the last few years, which hampered their future in a big way. Lischer is a member of the Expert Commission who has completely revamped the previous guidelines with the RöLF 2018 = Guidelines for the X-ray examination of the horse. These experienced veterinarians were determined to put emphasis again on the “clinical examination” and to limit the “excessive dependence” on X-ray grading. The experts decided to radically overhaul these guidelines. X-ray grading was completely tossed. The Commission is of the opinion that this school- note grading creates an expectation that one X-ray examination will completely cover any deviation in the horse’s skeleton. In the opinion of the experts from the Association of Equine Medicine, this cannot be expected of any veterinarian to determine.

New Version 

The release of the revised X-ray guidelines, including the reclassification of X-rays used in the pre-purchase examination, is supported by the Federal Veterinary Chamber, the German Veterinary Medicine Society and the Federal Association of Practicing Veterinarians. Information events are scheduled for the next few months throughout Germany. 

An important goal is, along with the explanation of the findings, to stress that the purchase of a living being = Horse is not the same as buying another commercial asset. Although lawyers will try in legal proceedings to argue, sometimes successfully, that these transactions are comparable. 

“A thorough clinical examination is the most important basis in assessing the actual physical condition of a horse in the pre-purchase inspection. The X-ray examination (and findings) is seen as an additional assessment tool and is only considered a small part in the overall report.”

This is new 

X-ray ratings were completely eliminated, i.e. categories I, II, III and IV with in-between classifications, seven in total. According to RöLF (2018) X-ray images will be evaluated as follows: 

Pictures which show the normal X-ray anatomy or anatomical variants that are of no functional importance, are graded “o.b.B.”= no findings. 

All findings that deviate from this “normal” X-ray anatomy, are noted in the Report. These are either findings where the risk of causing a lameness cannot be safely assessed, or findings that are subject to a lameness risk. These latter “risk findings” will be especially noted. 

The new approach by the Commission is based on current international text-books and scientific studies. Veterinarians have still access to a detailed description of their findings under a reference number. Furthermore, an App has been developed where the examiner can access sample X-ray pictures. This enables him, via Smartphone or Tablet, to check immediately how to interpret his findings. 

Prior to RöLF (2018) twelve X-ray pictures were "standard," to which could be added pictures of knees and spine.

Additional X-ray pictures 

The RöLF (2018) no longer includes X-raying the back (spine) of the horse. Scientific studies have shown that a prognosis based on such images is dubious in pre-purchase examinations. A slightly changed position of the X-ray machine can turn a supposedly healthy back into a serious case of “Kissing Spines”. When these spots are selectively X-rayed, often a different and better picture of the vertebras evolves – the Patient has a sound spine after all. 

Theses covering many cases have shown that back problems can differ tremendously in clinical and X-ray presentation. According to Professor Lischer: “New scientific research indicates that, up to now, these findings have been over-interpreted”.

On the other hand we found that with regard to hoof, hoof and fetlock joint more pictures are needed, to cover the crucial areas well. “The parallelism of the hoof wall with the outline of the navicular bone offers an important indication, if the horse possibly suffered from “Hufrehe” = Founder at one time. This can only be established with a clear picture from the side of the hoof”, notes Professor Lischer from his experience. To accommodate such and similar cases 18 pictures are now standard. 

Professor Lischer: “The previous standard projections do not cover all possible areas for scrutiny. The assessment in the 2018 X-ray Guide is based now on 18 images. A standard X-ray picture, for instance, does not always conclusively show, if a deviation is indeed inside a tendon or band. “Shaded areas” are not always an indication of a tendon injury. They may be due, for instance, to a calcified spot in the subcutaneous area or a scar in the skin – completely unrelated to the bone structures.” 

If the veterinarian feels a take from a different angle or an Ultrasound would clarify his findings, the client should be consulted. Such examinations may offer additional information which as such are not included in the RöLF (2018). The veterinarian has to discuss the results of these additional images with the client as they are not included in the contract for an X-ray assessment. 

Summing up: Every horse is an individual and “indications with regard to the general condition of a riding horse by radiograph” is not possible. For this reason “TÜV” and “X-ray Grades” have been eliminated. 

“We should not forget that above all, we are assessing healthy riding horses that are carefully examined in a pre-purchase situation”, says Professor Lischer.

These Locations will be X-rayed 

18 Standard X-ray pictures outlined in the X-ray Guide 2018.

Front Legs
1. Hoof 90° focused on the Navicular bone
2. Toe 90° focused on the Fetlock joint
3. Hoof 0° According to Oxspring, picture of Coffin bone and Pastern as well as part of the Pastern bone. It is strongly recommended to remove any shoes. If not removed, the examining veterinarian has to document this fact.

Hind legs
4. Toe 90° focused on the Fetlock joint with most of the hoof in the picture
Ancle bone
5. Ankle bone 0°
6. Ankle bone ca. 45°
7. Ankle bone ca. 135°

8. Knee ca. 90°
9. Knee ca. 180°
Not all mobile X-ray machines are capable of producing good pictures of the knee. If in doubt, a clinic with suitable equipment should be used.

Interview with Prof. Lischer 

St. Georg: What is the main difference between the new X-ray Guide and its predecessors 

Prof. Lischer: Dropping the ratings of X-rays. In our experience, they created more confusion than assisting in the assessments. 

But the purchaser knew what to do with X-ray rating I. Super. Buy! 

We should forget about the X-ray ratings as soon as possible. The problem was: Hardly any horse presents “perfect” X-ray pictures. But there are many cases with X-ray deviations all over the world that would unlikely lead to lameness. 

Until the TÜV separates us 

The word TÜV should be eliminated from the equine vocabulary! The TÜV was established to check-up on boilers of locomotives. The horse is not a machine, therefore “No TÜV”. 

You are now incorporating more standard X-ray pictures, but dropping the X-rays of the back? 

We defined additional positions for taking radiographs, since experience has shown that only in this way important sections can be examined thoroughly: Pastern and Fetlock joint of the fore legs are now X-rayed separately. The KNEE section will be X-rayed from two levels – from the side as before and from back to front. We also X-ray the Hock now on three levels instead of two. 

… the back? 

This was dropped in the RöLF 2018 since research has established that the value of these pictures is inadequate. Adding to this, we have often seen radiographs that do not reflect the actual condition of the Spine and its Vertebras.

If the horse shows clinical signs, i.e. pain when palpated or limits of back mobility, X-rays of the back can be taken, if the client asks for it. But this is not part of the standard Pre-purchase assessment. If we have a finding in the clinical examination, it should always be taken seriously. 

How can I be certain that my veterinarian is competent in Pre- purchase assessments? Is there a Certification process? 

This has (not yet) been introduced, but would in my opinion be a good idea. If the purchaser asks around, he should find a competent equine veterinarian with sufficient experience in pre-purchase examinations. If a colleague does this only sporadically, he may not be the right one.

The History of the X-ray Guide 

The new X-ray Guide, in force on January 1, 2018, was compiled by the X-ray Commission of the Society for Equine Medicine. The Commission members were Dr. Gerd Brunken, Dörverden; Dr. Werner Jahn, Bargteheide; Prof. Dr. Christoph Lischer, Berlin; Dr. Eberhard Schüle, Dortmund; and Prof. Dr. Peter Stadler, Hannover. 

The X-ray Guide is a German feature. A first initiative was taken in 1993 to standardize radiographs with regard to the Pre-purchase assessment of horses and make them comparable. The first Edition was released in 2002, which included X-ray ratings. The Guide was updated in 2007 and the X-ray classification defined differently. 

Also this version did not have the intended result. It led to the emphasis on radiographs to the detriment of the clinical examination, which scientific research did not support. The new version 2018 incorporates a completely new approach. Any findings are no longer rated, but described. The consumer has now the advantage of a clear picture with regard to findings that are red-flagged.

Career Path of University Professor Dr. Christoph J. Lischer Dipl. ECVS (European College of Veterinary Surgeons), finished studies at Zurich University in 1989, worked there as Intern till 1993. Additional training in the USA 1993/1994 and in China 1997/1998 (acupuncture). After some time as University Lecturer at Vetsuisse, Zurich, he became Professor of Equine Surgery in Glasgow. He is now the ”CEO” of the Equine Clinic, General Surgery and Radiology of the department of Veterinary Medicine at the Free University of Berlin.

Click here to read the original article in St. Georg magazine in German

Westfalen NA Announces Stallion Service Auction 2018

The Westfalen registry of North America has announced their Stallion Service Auction 2018. The auction will run through March 4, 2018, so don't wait! Go view, click here.

Looking for the right stallion, at the right price, for the 2018 breeding season? The Westfalen NA’s annual Stallion Service Auction is open for bidding now through 8 p.m. Eastern, Sunday March 4th, 2018. This auction offers superior quality and variety of stallions – more than 50 in all - with starting bids for Warmbloods at $500 and Ponies at $250. We have an interesting mix of trendy young stallions and well-proven stars. The auction is always user friendly and easy to navigate, with full pedigrees, photos and videos, along with links to the stallions’ websites. Don’t miss the final registry Stallion Service Auction of the season!

Our auction celebrates our 2017 Stallion Service Auction Futurity Champions –Dreamscape Farm’s Banderas (Balou du Rouet x Grannus) – congratulations to Bedazzled MKS breeder Michelle Bassett, and Pony SSA Futurity champ Xanadu Dressage's Bulgari Boy (Bodyguard x FS Champion de Luxe), sire of Jennifer Horner’s GRP filly Belle.

We have a top lineup of big names from both sides of the ocean. Hilltop Farm's collection features two exciting born-in-the-USA stallions - Debonair MF (Doctor Wendell x Rotspon) and Sternlicht GGF (Soliman de Hus x Rascalino) - as well the proven competitor from Horses Unlimited - Gallant Reflection HU (Galant du Serein x Rohdiamante). On the jumper side of things who can miss 2008 Olympic competitor Relevantus (Rabino x Westminster) on offer from EurEquine, and frozen semen from international performer and sire Cabdula du Tillard (Abdullah x Galoubet).

Dressage breeders take further note -- we have Iron Spring Farm’s Uno Don Diego (Dressage Royal x Falkland), along with two very successful black beauties – Devon Heir (De Niro x Rubinstein), and Supremat OLD (Sandro Hit x Rubinstein).  Superior Equine Sires' classic Rubinstein son Rotspon is back for 2018, and just added is Westphalians for USA’s Lord Ferragamo (Lord Loxley x Ferragamo) and Eurequine’s Don Roncalli by Donnerhall. Versatile dressage stallions from Holsteiner lines include FMB Farm’s Aliano (Aljano x Corrado I) and FEI stallion Le Mode by Limited Edition.

Hunter-producing sires with top jumper lines include 2016 Co-Champion sire Coronet d'Honneur (Comme il Faut x Dinard L) from Crossroads Farm, N.A. Stallion Test 3rd place finisher Montaro OHF (Mezcalero x Coconut Grove xx), top hunter stylist Ultime Espoir by Chellano Z and reserve champion of his stallion test, Marabet Farm’s Bliss MF (Balou du Rouet x Argentinus).

2018 brings an unparalleled selection H/J and Event sires: Avalon Equine’s Toronto (Now or Never x Belisar) is a jumper program improvement sire for several registries, and joins Avalon’s other favorites, Mannhattan and Allerbester.  Hyperion Farm’s Cicera's Icewater is an easy choice for breeders looking for pedigree and performance, and Marabet Farm offers their full line-up of top hunter sires, including Balt’Amour JSF, Carry On MF.  Country Lane Farm has donated a tempting choice of their hunter stallions, Westporte and new Chambertin son Centre Pointe. 

Looking for Diarado blood? Choose Delta Force (Diarado x Cassini I)! Also from Dreamscape Farm is Checkmate (Check In x Rio Zeus), along with dual-purpose producers Sagnol (Sandro Hit x Landadel) and Farscape DSF (Freestyle x Pacific Sunset). Don’t miss Hickory Manor’s Bandelero JSF (Banderas x Columbus), and Rising Star Sport Horse’s Figaro B, Cochise v/h Janshof (Coronado WW), and Darco son Valentino Z. Prairie Pine’s stylist over fences, Lotus T, and Holsteiner classic Caligula II.

Fresh young faces include for the Pony division include French champion German Riding Pony Under Cover Fast (Latimer/T x Cansas) and German shining star Del Estero (Dance Star AT x Marsvogel xx ), available by frozen,  and North America’s own GP powerhouse North Forks Brenin Cardi. Rounding out an exquisite offering of ponies is Hilltop Farm's proven Popeye by FS Pour la Nuit, Avalon Equine’s versatile Belafonte d’Avalon by Hilkens Black Delight, and Dreamscape Farm’s perennial favorite Bodyguard (Black Boy x Victoria’s Chirac).

If your mare is looking for a little color in her love life, or the adventure of entering another chapter of our studbook, Knabstrupper Stallion Colorado Skrødstrup, cremello TB Goldmaker xx from Avalon Equine, a choice of Golden Edge Sporthorses Mitril, Pallido Blu, & Sagar or the proven producer Halflinger Stellar TVR are the way to go! 

The Westfalen NA accepts warmblood mares and stallions from recognized WB registries, TB’s, and Anglo-Arabs for our Warmblood books. Also books for German Riding Ponies, Knabstruppers, and Halflingers.  We offer an extensive North American inspection tour, WBFSH passports and brand direct from our parent verband, the Westfälisches Pferdestammbuch e.V. in Germany, as well as HID passports with microchip for USEF Age Verification, and a full host of other services. 

2018 Participating Stallions include: Aliano, Allerbester, Balt‘Amour JSF, Bandelero JSF, Banderas, Belafonte D’Avalon - GRP, Bliss MF, Bodyguard - GRP, Bulgari Boy – GRP, Cabdula du Tillard, Caligula II, Carry On MF, Castleberrys ReFflection – GRP, Checkmate, Cicera’s Icewater, Cochise v/h Janshof aka Coronado WW, Colorado Skrodstrup, Coronet D’Honneur, Debonair MF, Del Estero – GRP; Delta Force*, Devon Heir, Farscape DSF, Figaro B, Gallant Reflection HU, Goldmaker xx, Le Mode, Lord Ferragamo, Lotus T, Mannhattan, Montaro OHF, North Forks Brenin Cardi, Pallido Blu, Mitril, Sagar, Popeye – GRP, Choice of Relevantus, Don Roncalli, or Lord Adonis, Sagnol, Stellar TVR - Haflinger, Superior Equine Sires - Rotspon, Sternlicht GGF, Supremat OLD, Toronto, Ultime Espoir, Under Cover Fast – GRP, Uno Don Diego, Valentino, Valentino Z, Choice of: Westporte or Centre Pointe

Ann Daum Kustar
Westfalen NA
Stallion Service Auction Manager
1-605-669-2200 office
1-605-685-3089 cell

Monday, February 26, 2018

USEA Educational Symposium on Young Event Horses

Kudos to the US Eventing Association's programs in support of breeders and young horses!

The 2018 US Eventing Association's Educational Symposium took place in Ocala, Florida last week at Longwood Farm South and the Clubhouse at the Ocala Jockey Club. The Instructors' Certification Program, the Young Event Horse (YEH) Program, and the Future Event Horse (FEH) Program teamed up to offer four days of educational sessions centered around the breeding, riding, and training of the young event horse. 

Click on the links below to read the USEA's daily coverage:

ICP Symposium Day 1

ICP Symposium Day 2

YEH Symposium

FEH Symposium

You can also read the related article here about the expanded opportunities in the FEH program for 2018.

Saturday, February 24, 2018

Future Event Horse Opportunities Expand for 2018

According to the US Eventing Association, the Future Event Horse Program has grown every year since its inception in 2007. 2018 will see more events, and a Central Championship in addition to the East and West ones. 

If you have an eventing prospect, this means you have more opportunities to get your young horse out to age-appropriate events and get feedback from judges.

For more information click here.

Mares Show Changes in Dry Matter Intake in Late Gestation - KER Article

Do mares need a supplement in late pregnancy? That's the subject of a recent article by the folks at Kentucky Equine Research.

Read the full article here.

Friday, February 9, 2018

Cabardino 2017 USEF Hunter Sire, W Charlot Farm Hunter Breeder of the Year

USEF Hunter Sire of 2017: Cabardino at home enjoying the snow.
We'd like to offer special congratulations to Augustin and Christine Walch and W. Charlot Farms (Stratford, Ontario) on their impressive accomplishments recognized by USEF this year! Their stallion Cabardino (Carpaccio x Gaspari I) was named USEF Hunter Sire for 2017, and Augustin and W. Charlot Farms were USEF Hunter Breeder of the Year as well. It's special in part because it's not the first honor for the farm. W. Charlot Farms has been USEF Hunter Breeder of the Year twelve times since 2004! Congratulations!

W. Charlot Farms has been USEF Hunter Breeder of the Year 12 out of the last 14 years due to the success their offspring have shown in the US. It was Rio Grande, the International Show Jumper and Hanoverian stallion, who first put the farm “on the map”. Rio Grande competed under Eric Lamaze and qualified to represent Canada at the 1996 Atlanta Olympics. He became one of the most successful hunter and jumper sires in North America, making the top 10 of the USEF Hunter sires for close to a decade. Almost all broodmares at W. Charlot Farms carry the proven bloodlines of “Rio." Augustin started his breeding career in 1968 in his native Germany, and has been established as a preeminent breeder in Canada for almost four decades now. In addition to breeding very successful show hunter, W. Charlot Farms have bred international show jumpers and dressage horses.

The legacy created by Rio Grande now continues thanks to Cabardino, who is the USEF #1 Hunter Sire for 2017. Cabardino is a  Holsteiner Premium stallion by Carpaccio out of Gaspari mare. He is approved by the Hosteiner Verband, AHHA, Hanoverian Verband, AHS, Oldenburg, ISR, CWHBA, and CSHA. Cabardino was a spectacular 4' hunter and is now a sought-after sire. He was bred and started in Germany, where he has an approved son. In North America he initially competed successfully in Young Horse Jumper classes under Erynn Ballard before Erynn started showing him in the hunter ring. Cabardino was campaigned from 2006 to 2008, winning Working Hunter Championships at WEF, Kentucky National, Tournament of Champions and Combined Hunter, Adult/Amateur and Grand Champion Amateur Hunter Championships at the Royal Winter Fair in Toronto. He is the sire of the Sallie B. Wheeler/USEF National Hunter Breeding Champion “Sabrina” and has produced many hunter line class champions in addition to countless "A" circuit hunter champions at some of the most prestigious shows in North America. His daughter Socialite (out of a Rio Grande mare) received the Canadian Bred Hunter Award for the third time in a row at the 2017 Royal Agricultural Winter Fair. Cabardino is retired to stud and as playful as ever when turned out in his paddock. He is the star at the farm and loves all the attention and pampering that he gets. He stamps his offspring with his wonderful disposition and his spectacular jump.

View other stallions standing at W. Charlot Farms:

Wednesday, February 7, 2018

Dorothee Schneider on Young Horses: The Horse Magazine Article

Dorothee Schneider and Horation, by Hochadel, demonstrating young horse training at a seminar.

Read this interesting interview by Christopher Hector with German rider Dorothee Schneider, who has brought young horses from 3-year-olds to successful Grand Prix competition. Lovely perspective on this rider.

Click here to read the article.

Old Data and New Research On Gestation Length: KER Article

A recent article in the Kentucky Equine Research Equinews library of articles points out new research on what the "normal" length of gestation is for mares. I put normal in quotes because - as they mention in paragraph 1 - the foal will only come when it's ready! Mares are not known for reading the same book you did.

The point of the article is that our expectation of normal - 340 days - was determined over 50 years ago. Only with Thoroughbreds. And only in northern European countries. But pregnancy lengths are different all the time, even for the same mare bred to the same stallion with other obvious factors the same. According to Kathy St. Martin of Avalon Equine and Equine Reproduction, "I've bred mares to the same stallion, year after year after year and had completely different gestational length. I had one mare some years ago that went 367 days, despite having foaled at 332 the previous year when bred to the same stallion, at the same time of year. One can only assume that for whatever reason, things cooked slower.

In some ways this is an example of the research finally catching up with what the breeders in the barn already knew. But it should be helpful to many breeders - especially novices - to know that the official word is no longer that mares "should" foal at 340 days. 

It would be simpler for humans if a horse's gestation period were more predictable - the rest of the article talks about how knowing what the gestation "should" be will help determine whether a foal is truly premature or not, and how that's important to know - for example. But it's not clear how that could ever be possible, since the reality is that there is a whole range of normal. 

If you have an opinion, please leave a comment.

To read the KER article, click here.

Click here to read a related article by Jos Mottershead: Is My Mare Overdue?

Kathy St. Martin is well-known and respected in the breeding community, not only as the owner of Avalon Equine, an established and successful breeding farm, but also as part of Equine Reproduction. is operated by Kathy and her husband Jos Mottershead, and provides extensive repro services from collecting and freezing semen to teaching breeding short courses all over the US and Canada.

Avalon Equine has several stallions with Profiles on Click each name to view that stallion's Profile:




Belafonte d'Avalon

Colorado Skrødstrup

Dracula d'Avalon


Hertog Jan v.d. Paddensteeg


Silver Creek's Validation

Smoke Tree Poetry in Motion

ES Toronto